When operated manually we see fatal electrical accidents to the line man are increasing during the electric line repair due to the lack of communication and coordination between the maintenance staff and the electric substation staff. Circuit breakers are electromechanical devices used in the power system to connect or disconnect the power flow at the generator, substation, or load location. Incase of excessive current, the fuse wire simply burns up or disintegrates causing the circuit to break. The voltage drop from the resistor is given to the non inverting input of the comparator and a fixed voltage is given to the inverting terminal of the comparator. Now the controller compares the entered password with predefined password.
The load demand is occurred, the maintainer entering the password to operate the switch the load will share,otherwise switch is opened. The code is then compiled by pressing F7 key. It is more advantageous as it allows quick identification of the fault zone and quick restoration. Recommended Reading: Principle Behind the Circuit The main component in the circuit is 8051 controller. Try out possible password combinations However, it is necessary to mention that this application does not have the capacity to reveal the password or determine when the correct password has been entered, but it simply tries all the possible combinations of the characters set you select. This is a tiring, arduous and a dangerous task. Interfacing of Hex key pad to Atmega32 is essential while designing embedded system projects which requires character or numeric input or both.
This project does not allow to control of the circuit to be located in the working feild ensuring to minimisize the fatal accidents occuring with the line mens in the working field. Prior to writing the code, general steps needs to be followed like creating a new project and selecting the target device or the required microcontroller. R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms symbol:. Once the code is written, we need to save it with. How we have done this? Furthermore, multiple loads can be turned on or off at the same time. Resistors act to reduce current flow, and, at the same time, act to lower voltage levels within circuits. The password ensures that only the lineman can operate the system and thus no chance of someone else interfering the system.
Four Lamps acting as Electrical Lines are connected to P0. Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and electronic circuits. I impressed by this project and wish to opt it for my semester project. They are fundamental components of any embedded system designed today. The voltage source in a circuit may have fl voltage output.
A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. It is used to maintain fix voltage of 5V to the circuit and so the circuit is not affected by the fluctuations. When we entered the password by the keypad if it is matched by preset password then the microcontroller sends a signal to trip the password based relay. Here we connect the circuit with a keypad through which we enter the password. Molecules in liquid arrange themselves until they all point in the same specific direction. Our system proposes a password based circuit breaker system. Oscillator Circuit Design: An 11.
Crystal oscillator: Crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This is now considered an antiquated term electrolytic capacitor. It is high endurance non-volatile memory segments. The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current in the circuit is called its resistance, and this can be assumed to be a constant independent of the voltage for ordinary resistors working within their ratings. A management report in android is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit.
We also feel that a theoretical study, perhaps from a Game theoretic point of view on the effect of circuit breakers on the markets should yield interesting results. In the next step, we use Proteus software to draw the circuit. These are the input and output peripherals. So, do not touch the load connected pins. These are used to indicate circuit breaker state.
Separate passwords are assigned for each electrical lines. First lets look at the various components used in this password based circuit breaker and their details. The first relay long distance telegraph circuits as amplifiers: they repeated the signal coming in from one circuit and re transmitted it on another circuit. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations The main component in the circuit is 16f877A microcontroller. To understand this, first we must look at what a circuit breaker is. I opt the same project idea. .
Here, we used two 33pF capacitors. Today over 21% theft apart!! The program can be set to consider character repetition or not. The password based circuit breaker device could just be the solution as only the lineman could reliably control the circuit breaker to avoid miscommunication. One pin is connected to output of microcontroller whereas the other is connected to the high voltage supply which is switched accordingly Circuit diagram of password based circuit diagram As seen in the above mentioned Proteus Diagram, all the connections of the microcontroller as well as the peripherals connected to it can be seen. Password Based Door Lock System using 8051 Microcontroller is a simple project where a secure password will act as a door unlocking system. For example projects like digital code lock, numeric calculator etc.